LEDs: The Light for the future


Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), “semiconductors that produce light when zapped with [positive polarity] electricity, ”[1] are on the edge of taking on the commercial and consumer sectors of the lighting industry. With greater efficiency, longer useful lives, and their “clean” nature, LEDs are the future of light, pushing traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps toward extinquishing. Only the higher production costs for LEDs has haier 4k tv 43 inch extended the existence of traditional lamps.

History

When viewing bicycles of traditional lamps, the higher costs associated with producing LEDs is not an insurmountable hurdle to overcome. The incandescent light lingered approximately 60 to 70 years before supplanting “candles, oil lanterns, and gas lamps” as the main source of lighting. [2] When the first primitive incandescent light was made in 1809 by Humphrey Davy, an English chemist, using two smokey barbecue grilling strip to produce light, it always been unrealistic. Later when the first true incandescent light was made by Warren De la Repent in 1820, having a american platinum eagle filament to produce light, it was too costly for commercial use. Only when Thomas Edison created an incandescent light having a carbonized filament within a vacuum in 1879, did the incandescent light become practical and affordable for consumer use.

Although considered relatively novel, the concept for LEDs first arose in 1907 when Henry Ernest Round used a piece of Silicon Carbide (SiC) to produce a poor, yellow light. This became accompanied by experiments conducted by Bernhard Gudden and Robert Wichard Pohl in Germany during the late 1920s, in which they used “phosphor materials made from Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) [treated] with Water piping (Cu)” to produce poor light. [3] However, during this time period, a major hindrance existed, in that many of these early LEDs could not function efficiently at room temperature. Instead, they must be sunken in liquid nitrogen (N) for optimal performance.

This led to British and American experiments in the 1950s that used Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) as an alternative for Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) and the creation of an LED that produced unseen, infrared light at room temperature. These LEDs immediately found utilization in photoelectric, sensing applications. The first “visible spectrum” LED, producing “red” light was made in 1962 by Chip Holonyak, Junior. (b. 1928) of the General Electric Company who used Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP) rather than Gallium Arsenide (GaAs). Once in existence, these were quickly used for use as indicator lights.

Eventually these red LEDs were producing lighter light and even orange-colored electroluminescence when Gallium Phosphide (GaP) substrates were used. By the mid 1970s, Gallium Phoshide (GaP) itself along with dual Gallium Phosphide (GaP) substrates were being used to produce red, green, and yellow light. This ushered in the trend “towards [LED use in] more practical applications” such as calculators, digital watches and test equipment, since these expanded colors addressed the fact that “the human eye is most alert to yellow-green light. ”[4]

However, rapid growth in the LED industry did not begin prior to the 1980s when Gallium Aluminium Arsenides (GaAIAs) were developed, providing “superbright” LEDs (10x lighter than LEDs being used at the time) – “first in red, then yellow and… green, ” which also required less voltage providing energy savings. [5] This led to the concept of the first LED flashlight, in 1984.

Then in parallel with emerging laser diode technology, which focused on exploiting light output, the first “ultrabright” LEDs were created in the early 1990s with the use of Indium Gallium Aluminium Phosphide (InGaAIP) led partially by Toshiba’s creation of an LED that “reflected 90% or more of the generated light…” In addition, during this same period, it was learned that different colors, including “white” (although a “true” white light was only recently produced with the use of an organic LED (OLED) by Cambridge Display Technology, in the You. Okay. ) could be produced through “adjustments in the size of the vitality band gap” when Indium Gallium Aluminium Phosphide (InGaAIP) was used, much partially because of the work of Shuji Nakamura of Nichia Corporation, who developed the world’s first blue LED in 1993. [6] Today, this technology is used to produce LEDs that even produce “exotic colors” such as pink, purple and aqua as well as “genuine ultra-violet ‘black’ light. [7]

A critical milestone was reached in 1997 when it became cost effective to produce “high brightness” LEDs in which the intensity (benefits) maxed the associated costs to produce it.
In conjunction with this milestone, newer technology is emerging that will likely keep costs down even further (and improve lighting) – the introduction of quantum dots or microscopic deposits ([8]

Advantages

The advantages of implementing LEDs to provide sole source lighting for every application are significant. LEDs produce virtually no heat (wasted energy) and are “in fact… cool to the touch” unlike incandescent lights. They are also more durable (encased in a solidified covering and resistant to vibration and shocks) than and last up to 50 times longer than traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps ( some can be used for about 10 years), and they “use a greater proportion of the electricity flowing through them” converting into “savings for consumers. ” [9] According to the You. S. Department of energy, “widespread adopting of LEDs could cut You. S. usage of electricity for lighting by 29%”[10] simply require less energy to work and by their nature, reduce the amount of ac needed to keep areas cool and comfortable.

Is very important of LEDs also provides lighting benefits when compared to that of traditional lamps. Unlike incandescent and fluorescent lamps, LEDs do not require the use of an external reflector to accumulate and direct their light. In addition, “LEDs light up very quickly… achiev[ing] full settings in approximately 0. 01 seconds – 10 times faster than” traditional lamps. [11]

LEDs also produce no ultra-violet output, which can damage fabrics, unlike traditional lamps; they are light-weight, environment friendly, and can produce different colors (without the use of color filters) based on the amount of power provided to each primary color ensuring that electricity is not wasted. The Boston Institute of Technology (Nano Structures Lab) is presently doing research that could lead to the creation of an LED “where both color and intensity (brightness) can be set in an electronic format. ”[12]

Uses and the Future

As LEDs gain a greater area of the lighting market, they are currently used in a number of devices and applications ranging from traffic control devices (e. grams. traffic lights, together with the single signal device that changes colors from green to yellow to red), barricade lights, risk to safety signs, message displays (e. grams. Times Sq, New york, items and news message boards, scoreboards), cell phones, television sets, large video screens used at sporting and other outdoor events (e. grams. Miami Dolphins end-zone screen), calculators, digital clocks and watches, flashlights (including models which is 60 seconds of manual turning provides one-hour of light, eliminating the need to stockpile fresh batteries for emergencies), Christmas lights, airport runway lights, buoy lights, and auto applications (e. grams. indicator lights as well as head lights and signal lights in some vehicles; driver’s of the new 2006 Honda Mustang can even change the color (125 different varieties) of their “LED-laden dashboard with the ‘MyColor’ feature”[13]).


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